Antibiotics are substances that kill or inhibit bacterial growth and are indicated in bacterial infections and other infections (fungal infections and protozoan).
The advancement in medicine in the 20th century is brought about by antibiotic therapy and had together with vaccination led to the successful eradication of diseases like tuberculosis in the developed world.
Owing to the effectiveness and ease of access, antibiotics have been over-used/misused in so many aspects of medical practice and this has led to the incidence of resistance to antibiotic therapy. Apart from antibiotic misuse by humans for disease conditions, their overuse is also seen in livestock management.
Antibiotics, when administered in the appropriate dose, are relatively safe with only few side effects like diarrhea, mild stomach upset and nausea. A rare incidence of allergy occurs in some subjects. Antibiotics do not cause constipation.
The kidney represents a part of several important and complex organ systems in the body. Two bean-shaped organs located in the flanks of the kidney serve excretory functions. Drug elimination occurs through the kidneys by the process of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion.
Because of its multiplicity of roles, clinicians must always determine the state of the kidney before placing patients on drugs eliminated predominantly through the kidneys.
Renal function declines with age. This and other factors may predispose one to renal disease (acute or chronic).
Renal disease, though a health concern of global proportion, is relatively manageable. However, end stage renal failure (renal disease) is usually a fatal disease.
Pyelonephritis is a serious kidney infection and can spread to the blood leading to severe illness. This is usually curable with antibiotic therapy.
Drugs for kidney infection
Antibiotics are the first line drugs for kidney infection. Home treatment for kidney infection used alone is not very effective especially in the cases of pyelonephritis. Most cases of pyelonephritis are complications resulting from bladder infections. Subjects with this kidney infection usually experience painful urination. Most times, urination is more frequent than normal.
The commonly used antibiotic drugs for kidney infection are the quinolone antibiotics (e.g ciprofloxacin), co-trimoxazole, cephalosporins, beta-lactamase inhibitors such as augmentin, carbapenems etc.
Generally, drugs used for this infection and the duration of use usually depend on the subjects’ health status and the organism(s) discovered during diagnosis.
Antibiotic therapy for kidney infection is usually administered for seven (7) days and more to ensure the total eradication of the infection.
In some cases, kidney infection becomes severe and hospitalization is usually the best approach to that. The antibiotic indicated in kidney infections may be administered intravenously in severe cases.
Additionally, underlying medical conditions might lead to recurrent kidney infection most of which may need surgery to fix a structural abnormality.
Home treatment for kidney infection is employed to minimize discomfort. It generally involves:
- Application of heat, using a heating pad, on the abdomen to reduce the feeling of pain.
- Proper and adequate hydration: It is recommended that affected subject take plenty of fluids to flush out bacteria from the urinary tract.
- Use of OTC pain medications: These are usually employed in cases of pain or discomfort. An example is Tylenol.
- Women are expected to wipe from the back to prevent the spread of intestinal and skin bacteria from the rectum to the urinary tract.
The medical term for kidney infection is pyelonephritis. The medical term for treatment of kidney infection is the kidney function test (laboratory tests done to evaluate the kidney performance and function by employing certain tests like creatinine clearance, BUN, creatinine-blood, creatinine-urine).
What is kidney doctor called?
When a subject is diagnosed with an early stage kidney disease/infection, it is wise the subject in question visits a kidney specialist called a nephrologist. Nephrologists are trained experts who handle problems concerning kidney functions and diseases of the kidney. This is one of the best approaches to solving the problems caused by kidney infections.
Though antibiotic therapy is indicated for kidney diseases/infections, antibiotic overdose may lead to serious adverse effects some of which include gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, anorexia) and cross-reactivity seen with the cephalosporin antibiotics.
Constipation is a condition whereby a subject cannot pass stool as supposed or cannot completely empty the bowel. That is, a slow colonic transit. It occurs in all age groups and its severity can vary from one subject to another. The exact cause of constipation is difficult to identify. However, a number of factors can predispose one to constipation. These may include inadequate consumption of fibers (fruits, vegetables, and cereals), sudden change in eating habits, side effects of some drugs, dehydration (not taking enough fluid), depression and/or anxiety.
Does diabetes cause constipation?
Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem in subjects with diabetes. Damage to the intestinal nerves as a result of type 1 diabetes can lead to constipation. Food and waste products move slowly through the intestine.
Can alcohol cause constipation?
Constipation can also be caused by certain medication used (antacids, antidepressants, anti-epileptics, antipsychotics, calcium supplements, opiates and iron supplements).
Drinking (alcohol intake) causes dehydration due to excessive urination; hence may worsen constipation.
Can constipation cause nausea?
Constipation is a symptom not a disease. Therefore, determining its cause is the first step to its effective treatment. Nausea could result as a side effect of drugs taken to treat constipation.
It is always important we consult a healthcare professional for any of these medical conditions for proper examination and subsequent treatment.